ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness are the main characteristics. If the disorder is not treated, it impairs academic and professional performance and social contacts. ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood. In many cases it persists for life.
Read on to learn more about the ADHD brain vs normal brain and the brain of a neurotypical person, as well as how to diagnose ADHD.
ADHD: brief overview
- Main symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. For some also dreaminess.
- ADHD brain vs normal brain: There are differences between the brain development, structure, and function of people who have ADHD and people without ADHD. These differences are key to understanding and treating some of the common ADHD symptoms and behavior patterns.
- Possible consequences: learning or professional difficulties, behavioral problems, problems in dealing with others.
- Causes: probably predominantly genetic, but also unfavorable environmental influences as a trigger.
- Diagnostics: Asking about typical characteristics, behavioral observations, ruling out other mental and physical illnesses as the cause.
- Therapy: Behavioral therapy , possibly in combination with medication. Training of parents in dealing with children.
- Prognosis: Often persists as “ADD” into adulthood. Hyperactivity then decreases. If left untreated, there is a risk of serious consequences for professional and private life.
Symptoms of ADHD
When children or adults are fidgety, unfocused, chaotic and uncontrollably impulsive, or even constantly dreamy, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be at the root of the problems. In the vernacular one also speaks of “Zappelphilipp”.
According to the ADHD definition, the disorder is accompanied by the following main symptoms:
- Attention deficit disorder.
- Pronounced impulsiveness.
- Extreme restlessness (hyperactivity).
ADHD symptoms can vary in severity. Not all signs are always present in one patient. Overall, there are three subgroups of ADHD
- Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive: “Zappelphilipp”.
- Mainly attention deficit disorder: “Hans-guck-in-the-air” or “dream girl” (attention deficit type).
- Mixed type: attention deficit disorder and hyperactive.
ADHD symptoms by age group
ADHD is considered a congenital disorder that becomes apparent before the age of six. The disease can last for a long time. However, ADHD symptoms manifest themselves differently in babies, toddlers, adolescents and adults.
Early signs in the infant
ADHD cannot be reliably diagnosed in infancy. In long-term studies, however, researchers have found a connection between ADHD and so-called regulatory disorders.
Babies with regulatory disorders cry often and for long periods, sleep poorly and are sometimes difficult to feed. They are also very restless and often appear in a bad mood. Some infants who develop ADHD later in life reject physical contact. However, such behavior can also be based on completely different causes. Only a third of babies who exhibit such behaviors are later diagnosed with ADHD.
ADHD symptoms in infancy
ADHD is also difficult to recognize in young children. An ADHD toddler typically cries a lot, has no desire to play, and has little ability to pay attention. Typical ADHD symptoms at this age are pronounced restlessness.
Social problems: ADHD often burdens the child and its parents equally. The children find it difficult to make friends because of their disruptive behavior. They have trouble making friends with other children.
Poor Concentration: Toddlers with ADHD have great difficulty concentrating on a quiet activity for long periods of time. After a short time they switch from one game to the next. Accidents can also be more frequent as a result of their unpredictable behavior.
Pronounced defiant phase: The defiant phase is also more violent than in other children. ADHD children often jump into conversations. Some tax their parents’ patience by constantly making noises.
Conspicuous language acquisition: Language acquisition in small children with ADHD either occurs remarkably early or is delayed.
Poor motor coordination : Many children with ADHD find it difficult to use handicraft tools due to their lack of fine and gross motor coordination.
ADHD symptoms in elementary school age
Common ADHD symptoms in elementary school children include a low tolerance for frustration and tantrums when things don’t go their way. Constant talking and inappropriate facial expressions and gestures are other symptoms. ADHD also manifests itself in clumsiness and frequent accidents while playing. The children suffer from the effects of the disorder and usually have low self-esteem.
Children with ADHD find it difficult to follow rules. At school they are therefore often seen as “nuisances” and “spoilsports”. They talk excessively and interrupt others. They solve tasks slowly and unsystematically, they are also easily distracted and hardly tolerate frustration. All of this makes them outsiders.
For teachers, ADHD signs such as being disruptive in class and highly distractible are challenging. Not every affected child is constantly fidgeting, but all children with ADHD syndrome are out of the ordinary.
In many cases, the children have reading, spelling or arithmetic disabilities. These ADHD symptoms make it difficult for children to keep up in school. In addition, their writing is often difficult to read and their ordering behavior is chaotic.
ADHD symptoms in adolescence
Adolescents with ADHD continue to be inattentive and often develop a “don’t care” mentality. They refuse to perform and take refuge in an aggressive anti-attitude. To a certain extent, such behaviors are not uncommon in puberty anyway, but they are much more pronounced in ADHD.
Adolescents with ADHD are prone to risky behavior and often feel attracted to marginalized groups. Alcohol and drugs often play a role. Many suffer from low self-esteem, some experience severe anxiety and depression. But there are also adolescents in whom the symptoms improve – restlessness and impulsivity decrease.
ADHD in adulthood
About 40 percent of children with ADHD will have the condition for life. Around two million adults in Germany suffer from ADHD.
However, the appearance of the disorder changes. Excessive motor skills usually disappear during puberty.
Dizziness, forgetfulness or disorganization then come to the fore. Symptoms such as impulsive behavior and ill-considered actions are still present.
The problem is that ADHD often goes undetected in adulthood. The symptoms then have existed for so long that they are perceived as part of the personality.
However, if the disorder is not treated, it can have serious effects on social contacts, professional careers and life satisfaction for those affected. Due to their impulsiveness and thoughtless actions, they often take unnecessary risks and harm themselves.
Adults with ADHD can also be extremely successful in life if they manage to control and use the ADHD-typical wealth of ideas.
You can find more about ADHD in adulthood in the text ADHD-Adults.
Positive Symptoms: ADHD can have benefits as well
ADHD can also have positive sides. People with ADHD are often mentally very flexible and can be extremely creative. If they find a task that inspires them, they are highly motivated and extremely productive. In that case, they can focus their full attention on one thing and be very successful.
They also have good access to their feelings and are considered to be very helpful. Her sense of justice is also strong. Despite the many difficulties people with ADHD have because of their symptoms, they often find amazing ways to cope.
Difference ADD – ADHD
The term Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) describes people who are inattentive and have difficulty concentrating, but who are not hyperactive. They correspond to the “dreamy” subtype of ADHD. So there is no fundamental difference between ADD and ADHD.
Children with ADD are less conspicuous than their hyperactive peers. The disorder is therefore often not recognized in them. But they also have great difficulties at school. They are also very sensitive and easily offended.
What are the key differences between ADHD brain vs normal brain?
There are several differences between ADHD brain vs normal brain. ADHD causes differences in:
- Brain structure.
- Brain function.
- Brain development.
These differences relate to brain size, neurotransmitters, and brain networks. People with ADHD may have areas of the brain that mature more slowly or have different activity levels than a neurotypical brain. Some brain differences may change as a child matures and grows older.
The brain maturation process varies by the child’s developmental stage. According to older research, the process includes:
- The careful growth, positioning, and organization of neurons (the brain’s cellular units of communication) into working brain networks.
- The development of myelin around neurons, which provide efficient neuronal transmission.
- The pruning, or re-organization, of unnecessary or inefficient neuronal circuits.
Brain areas and their functions
Before explaining how ADHD affects the brain, we are going to briefly review the different areas that make up the brain and the executive functions that each one of them has.
Being such a highly complex organ, the brain divides its different functions by areas, in this way, each “department” can specialize in certain tasks and transmit the processed information to other brain areas. The brain is responsible for managing sensory information, control and coordination of movements, and behavior among other tasks.
How does ADHD affect the brain?
Several brain neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions are affected in children with ADHD.
Alterations have been described in:
- The prefrontal cortex : responsible for executive function such as planning actions, starting them, realizing mistakes and correcting them, avoiding distractions due to irrelevant stimuli, being flexible if circumstances change.
- The corpus callosum : serves as communication between the two cerebral hemispheres, to ensure joint and complementary work.
The basal ganglia : involved in impulse control by coordinating or filtering information that arrives from other regions of the brain and inhibiting automatic responses.
The anterior cingulum : is responsible for affective management and handling of emotions.
Neurotransmitters act as chemical messengers that allow neurons to communicate with each other through receptors. In this way, neural impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another and from one brain region to another.1. The nerve impulse reaches the end of the presynaptic neuron.
How does neurotransmission work?
- The nerve impulse reaches the end of the presynaptic neuron.
- The vesicles with neurotransmitters are moving towards the presynaptic membrane.
- The vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, and neurotransmitters are released into the intersynaptic space.
- Neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.
- The nerve impulse is transmitted to the postsynaptic neuron.
How does ADHD affect neurotransmission?
The studies carried out indicate that ADHD produces problems in the regulatory circuits that connect two brain areas : the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia. These areas communicate through dopamine and norepinephrine. By having a deficient release of these neurotransmitters and a high level of reuptake of them, neurotransmission is altered , affecting attention, alertness, working memory and executive control.
The decrease in the synaptic metabolism of neurotransmitters produces the following consequences:
- Decrease attention.
- Decreases ability to initiate and continue activities.
- Impairs working memory (or short-term memory).
- Impairs ability to block inappropriate responses.
- Difficulty planning complex activities.
- Increase physical activity.
- Increases impulsiveness.
ADHD: causes and risk factors
It is not yet clear exactly why some children develop ADHD. What is certain is that genetic material has a major influence. Organic brain changes play a decisive role in the development of ADHD. With a corresponding predisposition, environmental factors can then trigger ADHD.
ADHD is not a modern civilization disease, as was often assumed in the past. It is not caused by improper upbringing, poor diet, or excessive media consumption. Although these factors can have an unfavorable influence on the disease, they are not the actual cause.
Researchers assume that genes have a 70 percent share in the development of ADHD. In many cases, parents, siblings or other relatives also have ADHD. The risk of developing ADHD is significantly increased, especially for boys, if a parent has the disorder.
Signal interference in the head
Scientists suspect that malfunctions in the brain are the main cause of ADHD. Certain regions are not active enough – they are in a kind of “sleeping beauty”. These include the frontal lobes and certain areas of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. These brain sections are responsible for attention, execution and planning, concentration and perception.
In them, the concentration of special messenger substances that are necessary for the communication of the nerve cells is too low. These include serotonin, which regulates impulse control, and norepinephrine and dopamine, which are important for alertness, drive, and motivation.
Countless pieces of information enter our brains every second, but we only become aware of some of them. A filter protects against sensory overload and helps to distinguish the important from the unimportant.
In ADHD/ADD children, the brain does not adequately filter out unimportant information. The brain of ADHD sufferers is then confronted with too many different stimuli at the same time and is overwhelmed.
As a result, they find it difficult to concentrate. The unfiltered flood of information makes them restless and tense. If the teacher shows something on the blackboard, the child is already distracted by the noises of his classmates. Although children with ADD without hyperactivity tend to behave quietly, they have just as much difficulty paying attention as the classic “fidgety person”.
The circumstances in which a child grows up can influence the course of the disorder. Examples of unfavorable conditions are:
- Little emotional support.
- Cramped living conditions.
- Constant quarreling between parents.
- Missing or incomprehensible structures.
- Lack of exercise.
- Time pressure.
- High media consumption.
ADHD: investigations and diagnosis
ADHD can manifest itself in many different ways. This makes diagnosis difficult. All signs of the disorder are not always present. ADHD symptoms are often difficult to differentiate from age-appropriate behavior. Therefore, only experienced specialists, such as paediatricians or child and adolescent psychiatrists, can diagnose ADHD.
For the diagnosis of ADHD, certain criteria according to the ICD-10 classification system must be met. ADHD is characterized by an unusual level of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. When diagnosed with ADD, children are merely inattentive, but neither hyperactive nor impulsive.
Diagnostic criterion inattention
At least six of the following ADHD-typical symptoms of inattention can be recognized in ADHD. They have been present for at least six months and are not due to an age-appropriate developmental phase. The affected
- Do not pay close attention to details or make careless mistakes.
- Have trouble concentrating for a long time.
- Often do not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
- Often do not complete instructions or complete tasks.
- Have trouble completing tasks and activities according to plan.
- Often avoid or refuse tasks that require sustained concentration.
- Often lose things like toys or homework books.
- Are easily distracted by nonessential stimuli.
- Are often forgetful in everyday activities.
Diagnostic criterion hyperactivity – impulsiveness
ADHD also manifests itself in at least six of the following ADHD-typical hyperactivity-impulsiveness symptoms. These too have been present for at least six months and are not due to an age-appropriate development phase. The affected
- Wriggle or squirm in the chair.
- Are reluctant to sit and often leave their seat, even when sitting is expected.
- Often run around or climb up everywhere, even in inappropriate situations.
- Are restless, energetic, or often behave as if driven by a motor.
- Are usually very loud when playing.
- Often talk excessively.
- Often blurt out the answer before questions are complete.
- Often have trouble waiting their turn.
- Often interrupt or disturb others in conversations or games.
In children with ADHD, these symptoms are typically observed before the age of seven. They perform not only at home or only at school, but in at least two different settings. For the diagnosis of ADHD, there must also be clear suffering or difficulties with social contacts, with learning or in the professional area.
Tests for the diagnosis of ADHD
In order to determine ADHD, the specialist uses special questionnaires with which certain ADHD-typical behaviors can be recorded.
Behavioral problems and special features that affect learning, performance or later the job are important. Other topics are the family situation and illnesses in the family. He also asks about special features during pregnancy, birth and development as well as about previous illnesses and other current complaints.
For adult patients, he will also ask questions about smoking, alcohol, drug use, and psychiatric disorders.
How parents can prepare for a visit to the doctor
- Observe and describe your child’s behavior: are there any recent critical events that could be causing the restless behavior? When do the attention disorders occur, at what time of day, on which days of the week (school days, weekends)?
- Talk to your child’s caregivers: kindergarten, school, after-school care center, grandparents.
Survey of parents, caregivers and teachers
For an ADHD diagnosis in children, the specialist asks parents and other caregivers about the social, learning, performance and personality structure of the child. The doctor could ask the following questions in an initial consultation:
- Can your child concentrate on one activity for a long time?
- Does your child fidget when asked to sit still?
- Is your child easily distracted?
- Does your child intervene frequently or a lot?
The teachers can provide valuable information about the intellectual capacity and attentional behavior of the little patient. Exercise books also provide indications of a possible disorder based on order, leadership, writing and classification. Certificates document school achievements.
Physical exams for suspected ADHD
The doctor examines the child’s motor coordination skills and assesses their behavior during the examination. To do this, he observes the child’s ability to cooperate, gestures, facial expressions, language and vocalizations. A measurement of the outgoing currents in the EEG is only necessary if, for example, there is a suspicion of epilepsy.
Behavioral observation in suspected ADHD
During the examinations and the anamnesis, the doctor/ADHD specialist observes the child and looks out for any behavioral problems.
Sometimes video recordings help to secure the diagnosis of ADHD. With videos, the specialist can also demonstrate to the parents how their child is conspicuous in terms of facial expressions, gestures and body language, or the interruptions in attention. The recordings also show the reaction of the parents and later document the course of therapy.
Differentiation from other disorders
It is important to differentiate ADHD from other problems with similar symptoms. Psychologically, this can be, for example, reduced intelligence or a reading and spelling weakness (dyslexia). If possible, the specialist compares the results with previous findings, for example the school enrollment examination. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can also cause ADHD-like hyperactivity.
In some cases, however, the hyperactivity is also based on physical causes such as metabolic disorders, epilepsy, tic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome or pathological itching, vision or hearing problems, which must be treated accordingly.
Lots of misdiagnoses
Experts assume that ADHD in children is often diagnosed prematurely. Not every particularly active or lively child has ADHD. Some children may just not get enough exercise to let their energy out.
Others need more moments of retreat and relaxation than other children and are overexcited as a result. Then changes in lifestyle are often enough to ease the situation. A precise diagnosis by an experienced pediatrician or child and adolescent psychiatrist is therefore important.
ADHD: Giftedness is rare
When children fail in school, it is not necessarily due to a lack of intelligence. Some children with ADHD have above-average intelligence and still have great difficulties in class. However, the combination of ADHD+giftedness is rather rare.
However, gifted children are often underchallenged at school and are therefore restless and disruptive. They are sometimes misdiagnosed with ADHD.
Children are considered gifted if they score more than 130 points on an intelligence test. Such children are usually characterized by a particularly good ability to concentrate, which is not the case with ADHD.
It is important to find out which treatment is optimal in each individual case. The specialists work together with parents, teachers, educators and other caregivers. Often no clear cause of ADHD can be found.
The aim of ADHD therapy is to enable the patient to develop normally and live as normal a life as possible. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder doesn’t go away on its own. But with an individually tailored therapy and a lot of patience, a lot can be achieved. Well-coordinated cooperation between all those involved is crucial for success.
Therapy for ADHD
Therapy building blocks
The following building blocks are important for the successful ADHD treatment of children:
- Education and advice for the parents, the child/adolescent and the educator or the class teacher.
- Parent training, family involvement (including family therapy) to reduce symptoms in the family environment.
- Kindergarten/school: Cooperation with educators and teachers.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy of the child/adolescent (from school age): learning to control impulsive and disorganized behavior.
- Appropriate drug therapy (usually amphetamines such as methylphenidate) to reduce symptoms in school, daycare, family, or other settings.
The combination of medication, behavioral therapy and parent training has proven very effective. Which building blocks are used or combined depends on the age of the child and the severity of the ADHD.
Therapy in preschool
At pre-school age, the focus is primarily on parent training and educating the environment about the disorder. Cognitive therapy is not yet possible at this age. If the children have difficulty staying with one thing for a long time, play training can promote this ability. Some clinics offer a special mother-child cure. ADHD is treated in these clinics with a combination of learning training and relationship work, among other things.
Experts warn against treating preschool children with medication for ADHD. It’s unclear how the drugs affect the children’s development. There is little experience with the use of methylphenidate in children under the age of six. Some professionals worry that ADHD medication interferes with brain development.
For school children and young people, education and advice for children and parents as well as parent training form the basis of therapy. An important first measure is the so-called self-instruction training. In a verbal self-instruction, the children specify their next steps.
The motto “First act, then think” is reversed to “First think, then act”. The ability to give oneself concrete instructions strengthens self-control and helps to reconsider one’s own behavior.
The self-instruction for the treatment of ADHD can be learned in five steps:
- The therapist or educator speaks the “self-instructions” as a model and acts accordingly.
- The child acts according to the instructions just heard from the teacher (external behavioral control).
- The child directs its behavior through its own self-instructions (open self-instruction) by speaking out loud.
- The child whispers the self-instruction (hidden self-instruction).
- The child should learn to control itself by practicing internalized self-instruction (covert self-instruction).
If the child is extremely restless or aggressive despite therapy and training, additional medication can be useful.
Behavioral therapy involves working with the children, their parents and the school. The children learn to structure their everyday life and to control their behavior better. In many cases, it makes sense for a professional helper to support the children at school for a while.
Practicing in model situations can also be helpful. As part of role-playing games, for example among peers, the ADHD children practice behavior in a practical situation that they can later apply at home or at school. If they experience recognition, they will quickly incorporate the new behavior pattern into their repertoire.
Parent training is an important part of ADHD therapy. In order to better support their offspring, the parents learn a consistent but loving upbringing style. These include, among others:
- Provide clear structures, express yourself unequivocally.
- Bring your own behavior into line with the instructions.
- Avoid distractions from a task at hand.
- Provide feedback on whether they find the behavior positive or negative.
- Clearly reward desired behavior.
Many parents also seek help from parent initiatives. Sharing with others helps them out of isolation and can reduce possible feelings of guilt. Parents of ADHD children are often only able to accept their hyperactive child for who they are thanks to the support they receive from the groups.
Drugs in ADHD treatment
Drugs used to treat ADHD can help with severe ADHD symptoms that otherwise cause significant difficulties in everyday life. They usually work quickly and well. In the case of severe behavioral problems, they often create the conditions for behavioral therapy. In less severe cases, the children should only receive medication if behavioral therapy treatment is not sufficient.
Drugs cannot cure the disorder. Therefore, patients often have to take them for years, sometimes even into adulthood. In order to permanently stabilize ADHD, they must be taken regularly. Treatment should not be interrupted on your own.
In addition, the doctor should check the course of the disease at least once a year and determine whether the active ingredient and dose are still optimal. If the ADHD symptoms have improved significantly over a longer period of time, the medication can possibly be discontinued.
The most common drug used to treat ADHD is methylphenidate. Methylphenidate is not a sedative but rather promotes activity. This seems contradictory at first, since children with ADHD are hyperactive anyway.
It is best known by the trade name Ritalin. The active ingredient is a psychostimulant from the group of amphetamines. It increases the concentration of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. Dopamine transmits signals between nerve cells. It plays a crucial role in controlling movement, but is also crucial for mental drive and the ability to concentrate.
In most affected children, methylphenidate reduces inattention and restlessness and improves their concentration. Methylphenidate enables some children to attend classes in the first place and makes social contacts much easier.
Methylphenidate works quickly. After just one hour, patients feel a clear effect.
At the beginning of therapy, the doctor determines the lowest effective dose. To do this, he slowly increases the amount of active ingredient. This dose is different for each patient: it can range from one low-dose tablet to three high-dose tablets a day.
Tablets that are taken once in the morning are suitable for ADHD children who need all-day stabilization. They release the active ingredient continuously throughout the day. Regular tablet intake is not easily forgotten. Also insomnia less common.
Methylphenidate falls under the Narcotics Act. To prevent abuse, doctors may only prescribe such drugs for a limited period of time and only on a special prescription form (narcotics prescription). However, methylphenidate does not have a physically addictive effect.
When used properly, the risks of narcotics are low. However, if used improperly, for example for “brain doping”, they can endanger health.
A newer drug used to treat ADHD is atomoxetine. It comes from antidepressant research, but does not have an antidepressant effect. The active ingredient tends to work a little less well than methylphenidate, but offers an alternative. Above all, it increases the concentration of norepinephrine in the brain by slowing down its breakdown. The messenger remains active longer and ensures that signal transmission in the brain works better again.
Unlike methylphenidate, atomoxetine does not fall under the Narcotics Act. It can be used to treat ADHD in children from the age of six.
Neurofeedback – ADHD therapy on the computer
Neurofeedback is a procedure in which the patient learns to positively influence his brain activities. For this purpose, electrodes are stuck to the scalp, which read the brain waves so that they are visible on a monitor.
This measurement is also called electroencephalography (EEG). By concentrating, the patient manages to keep his brain activity at a certain level. Through longer training, they can also apply the skills they have learned in everyday life, at school or at work. For many children, neurofeedback is an effective method of increasing concentration.
Diet for ADHD
Some parents report that fast food and a diet high in sugar further increase their children’s hyperactivity. The connections between such a diet and ADHD have not been scientifically proven.
It is different for children who suffer from both ADHD and a food intolerance or allergy. In these cases, a low-allergen diet improves the symptoms of ADHD in many children. Nutrition can then make a positive contribution. Doctors therefore often recommend a change in diet in addition to standard treatment. Some foods that often trigger allergies include dairy products, eggs, nuts, and coloring and preservatives.
ADHD: Disease course and prognosis
The attention disorder, also called hyperkinetic disorder, is sometimes difficult to distinguish from other behavioral problems. That is why there are no exact figures on the prevalence of ADHD. It is estimated that more than 500,000 school children in Germany suffer from ADHD. Boys are four times more likely to be affected than girls. With increasing age, the gender difference evens out.
ADHD is not a disease that just “outgrows”. In some children, the symptoms disappear over the years, but around 60 percent are with them for the rest of their lives.
ADHD untreated – the consequences
The right diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for people with ADHD, otherwise they will have serious problems at school or at work, as well as in social contact.
- Some do not make it through school or learn a trade that does not correspond to their mental abilities.
- Some find it harder to form and maintain social relationships.
- The risk of delinquency when young is higher.
- They are more likely to have accidents, including serious ones.
People with ADHD are also at high risk of developing other mental disorders. This includes:
- Developmental disabilities.
- Learning disabilities.
- Social behavior disorders.
- Tic disorders and Tourette’s syndrome.
Symptoms change as ADHD progresses. While children with ADHD are particularly noticeable because of their hyperactivity and impulsiveness, adolescents with ADHD are often more dreamy and inattentive. Hyperactivity usually decreases in adulthood.
So far, there are no comprehensive studies on the prognosis of ADHD. It is important that ADHD is recognized and treated in good time. Professional support enables the children to lay the foundations for their professional career.