Angina pectoris is a clinical form of coronary artery disease (CAD). The disease is characterized by the occurrence of paroxysmal pain in the region of the heart.
Under “exertional angina” refers to attacks of chest pain caused by emotional experiences, physical exertion and other factors that provoke an increase in the metabolic requirements of the myocardium (tachycardia, high blood pressure).
Stable exertional angina is exertional angina that has been present for more than one month. It is characterized by a stereotyped reaction (pain symptoms) to a certain load.
Medical measures carried out in the treatment of angina pectoris (ischemic heart disease) are aimed at: increasing the patient’s tolerance to physical activity; reducing the intensity and frequency of attacks; reducing the risk of developing myocardial infarction; increasing the patient’s life expectancy and improving its quality.
The complex of measures used by modern medicine to treat angina pectoris can be divided into three groups:
1. Drug therapy for angina pectoris
An individual selection of drugs is carried out. Antiplatelet agents and antianginal agents are used, metabolic therapy and correction of the lipid composition of the blood by means of medications are performed.
Pain syndrome in IHD is caused by the inadequacy of blood flow through the vessels of the heart to its needs. Therefore, pain can be prevented in the following ways:
- Eliminate the formation of blood clots in the vessels that feed the heart muscle.
- Increase blood flow through the coronary heart vessels.
- Reduce the need for oxygen supply to the heart muscle, minimize the manifestations of heart failure and the occurrence of painful episodes.
2. Non-drug therapy of angina pectoris
Non-drug therapy for angina pectoris is the elimination of risk factors. So, the patient should stop smoking and normalize his body weight. Regular physical training is required. They stimulate the development and restoration of the vascular network in the heart, increase the overall endurance of the body.
Compensation of diabetes mellitus and correction of dyslipidemia are also non- pharmacological treatments for angina pectoris. These conditions can be realized by observing diabetic and hypocholesterol diets.
3. Surgical treatment of angina pectoris
Surgical care for patients suffering from angina pectoris is often provided. Operative methods of treatment – balloon dilatation with stenting of stenotic arteries and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) – are not able to stop the further development of the atherosclerotic process in the vessels. With its further progression, the lumens of the remaining arteries also begin to narrow, which can provoke the appearance of heart attacks.
- CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) is the imposition of an anastomosis between the coronary artery and the aorta below the site of its narrowing or occlusion.
- Balloon dilatation of the coronary arteries is a less traumatic operation. Its essence lies in the introduction of a special catheter, which has a balloon at the end, directly into the narrowing zone of the coronary vessel. The swollen balloon begins to flatten the plaque, which narrowed the vessel lumen. In addition, today it is possible to install a stent into the lumen of the vessel (a special design that eliminates the risk of re-narrowing of the coronary artery).
The implementation of balloon dilatation is possible only with the availability of expensive equipment and a high degree of equipment of the medical clinic. The procedure is indicated for patients who have had angina pectoris for no more than two years, provided that the prescribed drug treatment did not give the desired result. The effect after surgery lasts from seven months to three years or more.
A patient faced with coronary heart disease should know that coronary artery disease is a very dangerous disease. If his treatment is not started in a timely manner, myocardial infarction is possible, which, according to statistics, is fatal in fifty percent of cases. Treatment of angina pectoris should be carried out in a cardiology department of a hospital by highly qualified doctors.