Depression: Symptoms, causes, ways to fight

Lack of vitality, unwillingness to get out of bed, being in a bad mood for a long time, and even unwillingness to live are all signs of depression. Depression is bad for a person’s health and general well-being. That is why it is so important to get medical help from a specialist on time.


ICD 10 – International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision

Classes ICD-10 / F00-F99 / F30-F39 / F32

Depression ICD 10; Depressive episode (F32)

In mild, moderate or severe typical cases of depressive episodes, the patient has a low mood, a decrease in energy and a drop in activity. Reduced ability to rejoice, have fun, be interested, concentrate. Extreme fatigue is common even after minimal effort. Sleep and appetite are usually disturbed. Self-esteem and self-confidence are almost always reduced, even in milder forms of the disease.

Often there are thoughts of their own guilt and worthlessness. Low mood, which changes little from day to day, does not depend on the circumstances and can be accompanied by so-called somatic symptoms, such as loss of interest in the environment and loss of sensations that give pleasure, waking up in the morning a few hours earlier than usual, increased depression in the morning, severe psychomotor retardation, anxiety, loss of appetite, weight loss and decreased libido. Depending on the number and severity of symptoms, a depressive episode can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe.

Included: single episode:

• depressive reaction
• psychogenic depression
• reactive depression


• adaptive disorder (F43.2)
• recurrent depressive disorder (F33)
• depressive episode associated with conduct disorders classified in F91.- (F92.0)

F32.0 – Mild depressive episode

Usually two or three of the above symptoms are expressed. The patient suffers from this, of course, but will probably be able to continue to perform basic activities.

F32.1 – Moderate depressive episode

Four or more of the above symptoms are expressed. The patient is likely to have great difficulty in continuing with normal activities.

F32.2 – Severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms

An episode of depression in which a number of the aforementioned symptoms are clearly expressed, bringing suffering; low self-esteem and thoughts of their own worthlessness or guilt are common. Suicidal thoughts and attempts are characteristic, usually a number of pseudosomatic symptoms occur.

Depression with agitation, a single episode without psychotic symptoms

Major depression, single episode without psychotic symptoms

Vital depression, a single episode without psychotic symptoms

F32.3 – Severe depressive episode with psychotic symptoms

An episode of depression as described under F32.3 , but with hallucinations, delusions, psychomotor retardation or stupor so severe that normal social activity is impossible. There is a danger to life from suicidal attempts, dehydration or starvation. Hallucinations and delusions may or may not match the mood.

Single episode:

• significant depression with psychotic symptoms
• psychogenic depressive psychosis
• psychotic depression
• reactive depressive psychosis

F32.8 – Other depressive episodes

Atypical depression, Single episode of “latent” depression NOS

F32.9 – Depressive episode, unspecified

Depression NOS, Depressive disorder NOS

How to tell if you have depression?

Pathology may appear after experiencing stressful situations. If the disorder is absent, after resolving the problem, a good mood returns to the person. But when the reason is eliminated, and apathy, depression and loss of strength does not leave the person, it is necessary to seek help from a specialist. Performance may also decrease.

You can determine the presence of depression on your own, but you should not self-medicate even at an early stage of development. This should be done by a doctor, since self-medication can only aggravate everything.

Depression in women is often postpartum, as their life changes dramatically, and sleepless nights add fatigue. From here there are breakdowns and apathy.

When the pathology is in an advanced form, then a person has the following symptoms of depression – not only a bad mood and impotence, but also persistent disorders of the nervous system. There are also symptoms such as: a significant decrease in self-esteem, maladjustment in society, despondency and loss of interest in any events.

Physiologically, appetite changes, intimate needs and energy decrease, sleep and intestinal functions are disturbed (constipation, weakness, fatigue during physical as well as intellectual exertion are observed), pain in the body (in the heart, in the muscles, in the stomach).

The patient shows signs of depression such as a loss of interest in other people, a tendency to frequent solitude, a refusal to entertainments, the use of alcohol and psychotropic substances.

Mental signs of depression include difficulty concentrating, concentrating making decisions, slow thinking, a pessimistic outlook on the future with a lack of perspective and thoughts of the meaninglessness of one’s existence, attempts at suicide, due to its uselessness, helplessness, insignificance.

Causes of depression

The onset of the disorder is not influenced by age or social class. Most often, depression appears against the background of stressful negative situations, with constant failures – then a person falls into despair from the inability to somehow influence the course of events.

But in addition to the social factor, severe psychological trauma can also lead to the development of depression, for example: the breakdown of a family, the death of a loved one, a serious illness that has affected not only the patient himself, but also his relatives. In this case, depressions are referred to as reactive.

The likelihood of depression increases with changes in hormonal levels: during adolescence, after delivery, with the onset of menopause, and also in old age. May affect both emotional and physical levels.

Another factor is brain damage and somatic pathologies. Often, depression affects stroke patients, chronic lack of blood circulation in the brain, after traumatic brain injury.

The causes of depression can manifest themselves as a result of side effects of drugs (benzodiazepines, corticosteroids). Often, this condition disappears on its own after the drug is discontinued.

Types of depressive conditions

  • Neurotic – people with low self-esteem, insecure, straightforward people often suffer. They constantly experience a sense of injustice, from this apathy arises.
  • Clinical – bad mood, loss of energy, problems with appetite and sleep. Suicidal tendencies are often observed. This clinical picture can last for at least 2 weeks.
  • Vegetative – manifested by such signs as tachycardia, a drop in blood pressure, tinnitus.
  • Psychogenic – develops after severe psychological trauma – divorce, loss of a loved one, dismissal from work, betrayal, etc. It is accompanied by mood swings, anxiety, and excessive sensitivity.
  • Disguised – often the ailment manifests itself covertly. Apathy, solitude and a decrease in interest in life can appear only as the accumulation of negativity and fatigue.
  • Asthenic – the condition is manifested by fatigue, sleep disturbance, emotional imbalance due to accumulated difficulties, stress, physical and psychological stress.
  • Postpartum – usually occurs 10-14 days after delivery. A young mother shows an increased sense of anxiety for the baby, and constant lack of sleep and fatigue further aggravate the situation. In addition, the hormonal background also affects the mother’s condition.
  • Somatogenic – seizures occur due to disturbances in the endocrine system, the formation and growth of neoplasms, both benign and malignant.
  • Alcoholic – depression is accompanied by excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. The post-alcoholic state is accompanied by an uncontrollable craving for alcohol and the growth of withdrawal symptoms when refusing alcohol.
  • Bipolar – the patient has a change of euphoria with a depressive, manic disorder. But in the period between these phenomena, caused by various factors: stress, loss of means of popularity, etc., a person lives a normal life and does not show symptoms of illness.

How does depression develop in stages?

At first, the patient has a depressed state, which he himself attributes to fatigue, a hard working week, taking alcoholic beverages and other reasons. At the same time, he wants to retire from others and at the same time is afraid of being alone.

Then the stage of acceptance arises: there comes an awareness of a dangerous state, the problem is aggravated, the intensity of negative thoughts grows, the body and the immune system fail.

The third stage – in the absence of adequate therapy, the patient loses control over himself, aggression grows.

Diagnosing and treating depression

Diagnosing and treating depression

To identify the disease, experienced specialists use short questionnaires – screening tools to identify symptoms: anxiety, anhedonia (loss of pleasure in life), suicidal tendencies.  Thanks to this, it is possible to determine if a patient has chronic depression, symptoms and methods of treatment for depression, what form and severity it is.

To fully understand the picture of the disease, the doctor needs to familiarize himself with the symptoms that indicate depression, and not another psychological disorder.

To treat depression, you can contact the following specialists:

  • Psychiatrist – treatment of depression with hypnosis, drugs for acute mental pathologies – schizophrenia, mental retardation, epilepsy, as well as other, less severe ailments – neuroses, depression, alcoholism, drug addiction, etc.
  • Psychotherapist – treatment is carried out through special therapy, which includes explanations, conversations, finding solutions to problems with the patient.
  • Psychologist – consults the patient, cannot prescribe medications and examinations. Clinical psychologists use modern test methods to identify the problems that caused the psychological disorder.

The main directions of therapy in treatment are psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, social therapy.

Collaboration and trust in the doctor is noted as a prerequisite for the effectiveness of treatment. It is important to strictly adhere to the prescription of the therapy regimen, visit a doctor regularly, and give a detailed report of your condition.

Drugs for the treatment of depression


To treat the disorder, antidepressants are used for anxiety depression or when the pathology is accompanied by lethargy. Antidepressants are prescribed directly by a doctor and are not recommended to be taken on their own. The effect of many antidepressants is manifested two weeks after administration, their dosage for the patient is determined individually.

For bipolar depression, insomnia treatment is used. While it has a negative effect on a healthy person, in a patient with a psychological disorder, sleep deprivation, on the contrary, brings the psyche back to normal.

Moderate to mild depression requires a mild, natural (herbal) medication.

Dr. Ashwani Kumar is highly skilled and experienced in treating major and minor general medicine diseases.