Menstruation disorders – the menstrual cycle (menstruation) is a condition indicating a change in the functioning of the organs of the reproductive system. This disorder occurs in almost all women, the cause of their development can be both physiological and pathological disorders.
Before treating menstruation disorders, it is important to undergo a series of examinations, the results of which will help the doctor determine the main etiological factor and prescribe the necessary therapy.
Causes of menstruation disorders
The main cause of menstrual irregularities is considered to be hormonal dysfunction in women, which entails an unstable manifestation of bleeding. This condition can be conditionally divided into 3 main groups:
- Physiological – climate change, frequent nervous overstrain, inappropriate nutrition, menopause
- Pathological – gynecological diseases, chronic pathologies of internal organs and systems that have a negative impact on the work of the pelvic organs
- Medication – taking hormonal contraceptives, glucocorticoids, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants that can affect the menstrual cycle.
Violation of menstruation in women after 40 years is most often associated with age- related changes in the reproductive system. At this age, the depletion of the ovarian follicular reserve occurs, and the frequency of anovulatory cycles increases. Such changes in the female body are initially caused by irregular periods, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, then menopause.
In young girls, menstruation disorders is often associated with uneven maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary and ovarian systems. Less commonly, congenital or acquired syndromes, chromosomal disorders, or reproductive system abnormalities can be the cause. Regardless of the cause, the treatment of the failure of menstruation should be carried out under the guidance of a gynecologist.
Symptoms of menstruation disorders
Depending on the etiological factor, menstrual irregularities can manifest themselves in different ways, therefore, a classification of clinical manifestations has been derived in gynecology, including:
- Algodismenorrhea – accompanied by pulling pains in the lower abdomen, nausea, headaches, menstruation failure
- Dysmenorrhea – an unstable cycle, manifests itself sharply without accompanying symptoms
- Hypermenorrhea – profuse flow of menstruation with a normal duration
- Menorrhagia – the cycle lasts up to 12 days with profuse bleeding
- Hypomenorrhea – scanty spotting
- Polymenorrhea – the interval between menstruation is not more than 21 days
- Oligomenorrhea – short periods with a duration of 1 – 2 days
- Opsomenorrhea – rare discharge at intervals of 1 time in 3 months.
In addition to the main clinical signs, there may be other symptoms that worsen a woman’s well-being and quality of life:
- Increased fatigue
- Decrease or increase in body weight
- Pain in the lower back or lower abdomen of varying intensity
- Frequent headaches, migraines.
All of the above symptoms should not be ignored by the doctor, who, after the results of the examination, will be able to determine the cause, make the correct diagnosis, choose the necessary therapy, and give recommendations.
How and what to treat
When a woman has a menstrual disorder, the doctor will necessarily prescribe a number of instrumental and laboratory tests:
- Histological analysis
- Flora smear
- Dad test
- Analysis of blood, urine
- Infectious screening.
The research results will help the doctor get a complete picture, determine the cause, and, if necessary, select drug therapy.
Treatment for menstrual irregularities directly depends on the cause, concomitant symptoms and characteristics of the patient’s body. If physiological reasons are the cause, it is enough to normalize the regime of the day and rest, monitor nutrition, and avoid physical and psychological stress.
When the cycle is disrupted due to infections, inflammatory processes of the ovaries, antibacterial drugs, uroseptics, hormonal drugs, physiotherapy, vitamin therapy are prescribed. Herbal medicine is prescribed as an aid. The choice of any drug always remains with the attending physician, who will select the required dose and duration of administration.
To regulate menstruation, doctors often advise to follow a diet, to exclude contact with any provoking factors. If the failure of menstruation occurs due to damage to the cervix, the woman may be prescribed surgical treatment.
Treatment and Prevention Tips
In order to avoid menstrual irregularities, doctors in the field of gynecology recommend women and girls to monitor their health, not to self-medicate. Every woman must follow certain rules, as well as have the necessary information:
- Girls’ periods should begin at the age of 10-14 years
- Keep a menstrual calendar
- Visit a gynecologist at least once every 6 months
- Timely treat all gynecological diseases
- Not to self-medicate, uncontrolled intake of medications
- Balance the menu
- Lead an active and healthy lifestyle.