The first signs of diabetes- Diabetes mellitus is a persistent chronic metabolic disorder due to a deficiency of its own insulin, along with an increase in glucose levels in women, men, and children. An increase in the glycemic index is accompanied by intense thirst, urinary dysfunction, high appetite, and headache.
Changes in metabolism often lead to nephropathy, complications from the cardiovascular system. More than 15% of the world’s inhabitants are ill with diabetes, but in fact the indicators are much higher due to the latent form of the pathological process. What are the signs of diabetes mellitus and what to look for?
Main types of diabetes
A clinically significant classification is made up of two main types of disease:
- symptomatic or secondary – a consequence of pathologies of the pancreas or thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, chronic renal failure;
- primary or true.
True pathology is classified into the following types:
- Type I insulin-dependent – own insulin is not produced at all or is synthesized in an insignificant amount.
- Type II or non-insulin dependent – body tissues are not sensitive to insulin at any concentration in the blood.
A separate group is the pathology in pregnant women. The severity of diabetes mellitus – I, II, III – and the stage of compensation for carbohydrate metabolism disorders are of importance: compensated (well-controlled course of the disease), decompensated (complete lack of treatment effect) or subcompensated (treatment is carried out, but it is not enough).
Diabetes mellitus can be congenital and acquired, occur in a latent form, manifest during periods of high hormonal activity (puberty, pregnancy, menopause, etc.). If a congenital metabolic disorder in children is facilitated by a burdened heredity or teratogenic effect on the fetus during a woman’s pregnancy, then the acquired one may occur against the background of the following diseases or conditions:
- obesity, physical inactivity;
- long-term uncontrolled intake of certain medications (cytostatics, hormones, adrenaline, anticoagulants, diuretics, antihypertensive drugs);
- mental disorders, psychoemotional instability;
- renal failure, impaired adrenal function;
- cardiovascular insufficiency;
- dysfunction of the liver, organs of the hepatobiliary system.
Any diseases in which metabolism is impaired, as well as emergencies, such as acute poisoning, dehydration, severe infectious process, viruses, can affect the development of diabetes mellitus.
Common symptoms and first signs of diabetes
The key difference between types 1 and 2 is the increase in clinical symptoms. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus manifests itself rapidly, when non-insulin dependent type 2 develops gradually. It is for this type that a long asymptomatic course is characteristic. In general, both types manifest in different ways, but have several symptoms in common:
- dry mouth, persistence of thirst even after drinking;
- addiction to carbonated water;
- profuse, frequent urination;
- increased appetite while maintaining the same physical activity;
- frequent contraction of the calf muscles;
- weakness, insomnia, decreased performance;
- dry skin and mucous membranes;
- skin rashes.
Often, patients complain of the following symptoms of diabetes mellitus in an adult: dryness and hair loss, gynecological diseases in women and urological problems in men. With the steady development of the disease, immunity decreases, the body becomes susceptible to infections, loosening or depletion of bone tissue occurs. Diabetes mellitus leads to serious complications that sharply reduce the patient’s quality of life and lead to disability.
The first signs of type 1 diabetes
The main symptoms of type I diabetes mellitus are specific. Patients should pay attention to the following changes in health status:
- increased appetite, while weight loss occurs, the person does not gain excess weight;
- constant thirst, which is quenched by carbonated drinks;
- increased frequency of urination, an increase in the volume of daily urine output;
- acetonemia – an increase in acetone in the blood, a specific odor from the mouth, urine takes on the smell of baked apples;
- increasing weakness, fatigue;
- hearing impairment, vision.
What are the external signs of type 1 diabetes mellitus? Skin, hair, or mucous membrane symptoms do not always occur.
Type 1 diabetes develops suddenly, unfortunately, manifests itself with acute symptoms. With the development of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, patients need emergency hospitalization in the intensive care unit.
The first signs of type 2 diabetes
What are the symptoms of type II diabetes? Type 2 is recorded in obese adults over 35-45 years old. The mechanism of development is due to the fact that an increase in the volume of subcutaneous fat reduces the sensitivity of receptors to insulin, glucose ceases to be normally absorbed. The main signs of type 2 diabetes are:
- constant sleepiness, fatigue;
- episodes of numbness of the lower extremities;
- an increase in the volume of daily urine, frequent urination;
- desire to eat sweets.
Indirectly indicating signs of incipient non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus can be frequent exacerbations of chronic diseases, infectious processes, deterioration of the skin and hair.
Prevention of the symptoms of incipient diabetes consists in eliminating the toxic effect on the pancreas, reducing resistance to infectious processes. Preventive measures against type 2 are justified by weight control, nutritional correction, especially in persons with a complicated hereditary history.
Patients with symptoms of the onset of diabetes mellitus need the advice of a general practitioner and an endocrinologist. With combined pathologies, consultations of specialized specialists are shown: a cardiologist, a nephrologist, a rheumatologist. The prognosis depends on the diseases of vital organs and systems aggravating the course of the pathological process.