Reduced, partial or completely absent ability to distinguish colors, shades, i.e. color blindness disease occurs in about 8.5% of the world’s population. It does not pose a threat to the life or condition of other systems and organs.
However, it affects the quality of life in general, since it does not allow one to fully perceive the world around us, and can also cause inconvenience in terms of orientation, for example, when crossing the road at a traffic light.
Color blindness disease
This problem occurs due to the malfunctioning of the retina of the eye. Its photoreceptors (cones), which contain pigments of basic colors (red, blue, yellow) and are responsible for converting a light beam into a visual signal, are either absent or poorly developed.
Those. color blindness is a disease in which a person does not perceive shades from one, two or all three palettes, which are replaced in consciousness with gray.
Types of color blindness
Depending on the characteristics of perception, 3 types of the disease are distinguished:
- Dichromasia, in which a person does not distinguish between shades of any one base color.
- Monochromasia. In this case, two cones are malfunctioning, and the patient normally sees only one color.
- Achromasia. The most severe form of the disease, in which the world is seen exclusively in black and white.
In addition, types of color blindness are distinguished depending on which color is not perceived by the retina:
- protanomaly. Shades of red are replaced by brown or dark green.
- deuteranomaly. Green is seen as yellow, orange.
- tritanomaly. The blue-violet palette is perceived as green or red.
Symptoms of color blindness
The key symptom of the disease is the inability to distinguish colors correctly. Some forms may be accompanied by additional symptoms. For example, tritanopic dichromasia is accompanied by night blindness, i.e. inability to see at dusk.
Monochromasia provokes the development of photosensitivity. However, the disease often does not manifest itself in any way.
Therefore, it is difficult to identify signs of color blindness, especially in a child. In congenital form, in principle, he cannot characterize the color, since he does not understand what it is.
In this case, special techniques are used: studying the perception of objects of various shades, working with tables, pictures.
A professional pediatric ophthalmologist in Kiev will be able, after conducting a number of these studies, to identify not only the type, but also the severity of the disease.
Parents should also know how color blindness manifests itself in a child. To do this, you should pay attention to his drawings.
If a baby draws red leaves on trees or a green sun, this is a signal that it is necessary to see a specialist. Until 3 years of age, this disease is, in principle, not diagnosed, since the visual system is still in the stage of formation.
Who is color blind
Human genetic characteristics determine the predominantly male nature of the disease. Per 1000 inhabitants of the planet, only 1-2 women and about 80 men suffer from partial or complete color blindness.
The fact that color blindness in women is rare is determined by the presence of the X chromosome, which blocks the development of the disease. Only those girls who have both color blind parents are at risk. In boys, inheritance is possible from both father and mother.
Causes of color blindness
Reveal congenital and acquired forms. In the first case, the reason lies in the “unsuccessful” heredity, when the problem is family, and many close relatives of the patient know firsthand what color blindness is. This is the most common clinical picture.
The acquired form, which ophthalmologists encounter much less often, develops as a result of the influence of a number of factors:
- age-related measurements of the lens that provoked clouding. They are often accompanied by visual impairment.
- various eye injuries that have caused damage to the optic nerve, retina.
- neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Pick’s, dementia, etc.).
- damage to the occipital lobe of the brain as a result of trauma, hemorrhage, tumor pressure.
- individual reaction to any drugs, as well as intoxication.
Can color blindness be cured?
In the case of a congenital pathology, we are talking more about correction. The question of how to cure color blindness, inherited, is still asked by scientists and doctors, but there is no method of completely eliminating the problem.
Color blindness can be corrected with special glasses or contact lenses. They have a coating that evens out the perception of shades to some extent, bringing it closer to normal.
In this matter, the patient will be helped by a professional ophthalmology clinic , whose specialists will be able to choose the best option for glasses or lenses individually for the patient.
The acquired form can be completely cured, it depends on the cause of its occurrence. If the deviation is the result of trauma, as well as glaucoma, cataracts, in most cases, surgery can help. In some cases, it is enough to stop taking the drug that causes a specific reaction.
If the violation of color perception is associated with the course of another disease, it is necessary to inform the doctor about its presence. He will determine how to treat color blindness and prevent the problem from occurring in the future.
There are no measures to prevent the onset of the congenital form. Families in whose family this disease was encountered are recommended to visit genetics at the stage of planning the birth of a child. A study of the parents’ DNA will help determine the level of risk of pathology.
If we are talking about the acquired form, then prevention is to eliminate the cause of color blindness. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, progressive cataract should be examined by an ophthalmologist at least 2 times a year, which will allow him to identify the development of complications in time.